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"It's a...It's a dinosaur!"
Alan Grant stunned by the Brachiosaurus.(src)

Brachiosaurus is a member of the sauropod family and one of the most well-known of all dinosaurs. It gets its name from the great height of its humerus, or upper arm bone - which is longer than most humans are tall. For almost a century, Brachiosaurus was considered the tallest of all dinosaurs, being over 13 metres tall. Since then, other dinosaurs have been discovered to have been taller.

Originally discovered in 1900 in Colorado, Brachiosaurus was named in 1903 by Elmer Riggs of the Field Museum in Chicago. Brachiosaurus was once thought to have lived in both the United States and Africa (Tanzania) in the Jurassic. Scientists believed that Africa and North America were connected during the Jurassic. However, the African species of Brachiosaurus is now thought to be a different genus called Giraffatitan.

New studies by computer specialists suggest that Brachiosaurus may not have carried its neck angle up as high as was thought once. It may have carried the neck more at a 45 - 60 degree angle.


Wikipedia
Wikipedia has a more detailed and comprehensive article on Brachiosaurus



Story

Creation

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10 Brachiosaurus were recreated by InGen in their compound[1] on Isla Sorna where the workers on the island served as their caretakers.[2]

These clones chewed their food, unlike the original Brachiosaurus and other sauropods, which could mean the Brachiosaurus clones probably didn't require gastroliths to aid in digestion. Also, unlike the original dinosaur, the cloned Brachiosaurus had hind legs strong enough to allow them to get into a tripod stance while feeding. The clones have elephant-like feet instead of one large claw on the first toe of each front foot and claws on the first three toes of their back feet. Another odd characteristic was the nostrils, located on the forehead rather than near the snout region. They would communicate by using whale-like hoots. The Brachiosaurus on Isla Nublar came in two different colors, one being gray-brown and the other being gray-brown with a creamy underbelly and turquoise tinge on their crests. It is suggested that the ones with turquoise are males and the plain brown ones are females.

When the Brachiosaurus reached a certain age, they would be transported to the nearby island Isla Nublar to serve as an attraction for InGen's Jurassic Park. They lived in the Brachiosaurus Enclosure, coexisting with the hadrosaur Parasaurolophus.[3]

Isla Nublar Incident

The Brachiosaurus was the first dinosaur encountered by the endorsement team hired by InGen to make sure Jurassic Park was safe for visitors. The entire team was amazed. Dr. Alan Grant and Dr. Ellie Sattler were the most awestruck of the group because the Brachiosaurus was terrestrial, not semi-aquatic swamp dwellers they had thought they were.[3]

Myfriendbrachiosaur4.jpg

When Dennis Nedry disabled Jurassic Park's security systems, the security fences that kept the prehistoric animals from escaping their enclosures were disabled as well, Brachiosaurus was one of the dinosaurs that were able to roam freely.

After fleeing from the Tyrannosaur Paddock, Dr. Alan Grant and Tim and Lex Murphy climbed a tree where saw a herd of Brachiosaurus feeding on the nearby trees, hooting in the distance. Dr. Alan Grant heard their calls and attempted to imitate them to successful results. The following morning, a Brachiosaurus sick with a cold or a similar disease fed on the tree that the three humans were sleeping in, waking them up. Lex panicked at the sight of the dinosaur, believing it to be dangerous at first, but she soon calmed down when Dr. Alan Grant and her brother showed her that it was harmless. Dr. Grant fed the Brachiosaurus a nearby branch on the tree and Tim Murphy even pet it. However, when Lex attempted to pet the dinosaur like her brother did, the Brachiosaurus responded by sneezing on her. The humans and the Brachiosaurus later went their separate ways.

It is unknown what happened to the Brachiosaur populations on Isla Nublar after the Isla Nublar Incident of 1993.

However, according to information revealed by InGen reports, there were at least 5 surviving Brachiosaurus on the island by October 1994. One died due to malnutrition.[2]

Wild on Isla Sorna

Upon Hurricane Clarissa's arrival on Isla Sorna, the human workers evacuated the island. The Brachiosaurs under their care were either set free or they broke out of their cages. To counter the Lysine contingency, the wild Brachiosaurus ate plants rich in Lysine.[1]

Brachiosaurus was known to have taken residence in the northeast of the island where it was the largest herbivore known to that region. It coexisted with the fellow herbivores Ankylosaurus, Corythosaurus, Parasaurolophus, Stegosaurus, and Triceratops. The Isla Sorna Brachiosaurs are much different from the Isla Nublar Brachiosaurus. These new clones are beige with green stripes, with some having dark red on their crests. The red crested ones could be the males of this different variation.[4]

Isla Sorna Rescue Mission

Brachiosaurs at a river bank on Isla Sorna.

Passengers of the plane N622DC saw a herd of Brachiosaurus during their fly-over of Isla Sorna at the beginning of the Isla Sorna Incident of 2001.

Another herd was seen by Dr. Alan Grant and the Kirby family at a river bank.

Jurassic World

Treetop Gazers concept

Along with being seen on the Holoscape inside the Innovation Center, it was planned for the Treetop Gazers attraction,[5] though it is unknown whether or not it was created, or if there were still living specimens, before the conception of the attraction. According to the concept art, the Brachiosaurus had brown skin much like the previous, but with a blue stripe down its head and neck, though it could just be the art, as these variants have never encountered.

Some can also be seen in the Gyrosphere attraction, as shown in Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous, but perhaps it would be withdrawn soon due to the arrival of the Treetop Gazers attraction in the year 2018, if Jurassic World hadn't gone down in 2015.

Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous

The Brachiosaurus also made a small appearance in season 2 of Camp Cretaceous, set shortly after the fall of Jurassic World. One was killed near campers by Indominus rex. It reappeared in the third season of the series, a Brachiosaurus is killed by one of the Scorpios rexs in a stampede.

Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom

"Look at that. Thought I'd never see one in real life. She's beautiful."
Zia Rodriguez seeing the Brachiosaurus for the first time in her life.(src)


It is revealed that there are some surviving Brachiosaurus populations on Isla Nublar, but the species faces danger in the form of an impending erupting volcano.

Brachiosaur roaring by the Innovation Center

A Brachiosaurus is later seen walking down the ruins of Main Street, in front of Owen, Claire, Zia and others.[6]

A Brachiosaurus skeleton was seen near the radio tower's hatch.[7]

When Mt. Sibo erupts, the Brachiosaurs were among the dinosaurs stampeding from the eruption, facing many heavy casualties, most notably: as the boat Arcadia leaves Nublar to its fate, a Brachiosaurus, the same one seen by Grant and Sattler 25 years ago, is seen walking down the East Dock, crying out and standing on its hind legs as it is slowly engulfed by the toxic smoke and debris from the erupting volcano, letting out its final cries.[6]

Despite the massive casualties, the species' survival is confirmed by the Arcadia's manifest,[8] and by J.A. Bayona himself, which shows that at least two adult Brachiosaurus had been captured and escaped the estate off-screen.

Some of Mill's mercenaries managed to salvage its viable embryo, as seen during Malcolm's voiced over final testimony with the committee,[6] implying that more Brachiosaurus may be engineered in the future.

By 2018 it was known that Brachiosaurus was subject to cruelty at some time in the past, according to the DPG.[9]

Gallery

Videos

Photos

Promotional Images



Jurassic Park

Jurassic Park III

Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom

Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous

Vocalizations

Trivia

  • Brachiosaurus is the only dinosaur to be given a possible maximum age. The encyclopedia included with DVD of the first film puts their age at a maximum of two hundred years.
  • When the boat 'Arcadia' left the island and the Brachiosaurus was walking down the East Dock, it references the fact that Isla Nublar began with the Brachiosaurus (if not counting the Velociraptor in the opening scene), and since Isla Nublar is experiencing its end, the Brachiosaurus is the last dinosaur that is ever seen of Isla Nublar.
  • The death of the Original Brachiosaurus from Jurassic Park in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom is described by fans as, "the most saddest scene" ever made in the film franchise, signifying it as the end of a dream.

Behind the scenes

Jurassic Park Brachiosaurus concept art by Mark "Crash" McCreery.

Early in the development of the first film, Phil Tippett lobbied for the Apatosaurus from the novel to be replaced by Brachiosaurus or Ultrasaurus in the film adaptation because the aforementioned sauropods were bigger than Apatosaurus and Tippett felt that the sauropods he was lobbying for had a "much more interesting design" physiologically.[10] Ultimately, Brachiosaurus was the sauropod that was picked for the film, though Ultrasaurus would later appear in Jurassic Park: The Ride.

While writing the script for Jurassic Park, screenwriter David Koepp mistook Brachiosaurus for Brontosaurus. This is alluded to in the final film when Tim Murphy misidentifies a Brachiosaur herd as "Brontosauruses".

When designing the Brachiosaurus for the first film, Mark "Crash" McCreery visited a zoo that was keeping African elephants. He studied the elephants to give the film's Brachiosaurus its impressive mass and weight. From studying these animals, it also helped give the skin of the Brachiosaurus a tough and leathery look.[11]

Because Stan Winston wanted the Brachiosaurus in Jurassic Park to appear docile, the animatronic for the dinosaur was given a 4-axis jaw that allowed its jaw to move from side to side reminiscent of a cow chewing cud. It was the largest puppet that Stan Winston Studios built for the film that did not use any hydraulics.[12] The animatronic head and neck was eight feet tall.[13] Its sneeze was created from K-Y jelly, green and yellow food colorings, and a food thickener.[14]

Brachiosaurus was the first CGI dinosaur to be created during post-production of Jurassic Park. During the creation of the CGI model, director Steven Spielberg would frequently critique it.[15] Spielberg requested that the Brachiosaurus that appeared in its reveal scene be made larger, but when Industrial Light and Magic made it twice the size that it was intended to be, the dinosaur towered over the branches when it reared up on its hind legs. To counteract this, the head and neck of the Brachiosaur's model were lowered so it could reach the branches that were below it.[16] TyRuben Ellingson painted the digital maps used for the color of the Brachiosaurus in the film.[17] The movements of the Brach were based on both the elephant and the giraffe. The giraffe was used for the sauropods long strides and grace while the elephant gave it the weight and mass as it moved.[18]

Several animals were used in the creation of the sounds of the Brachiosaurus. These animals include swans, geese,[19] elephants, cows, and donkeys. The sounds of the donkeys were slowed down to create the "singing" sound the Brachiosaurs make.[20]

The Ronto for the Star Wars: Episode IV: A New Hope 1997 Special Edition was created from a modified model of the Brachiosaurus from the first film. Industrial Light and Magic even referred to the Ronto as "Bronto" before it was named "Ronto", which was the name George Lucus gave to this alien creature that is simply its production nickname with the "b" dropped.[21] The Brachiosaurus model from the first film was also retrofitted to serve as the Mamenchisaurus for the sequel to Jurassic Park, The Lost World: Jurassic Park.[22]

Empire Magazine called the first encounter with the Brachiosaurus the 27th most magical moment in cinema.[citation needed]

In the Jurassic World storyboard, an attraction called "Brachiosaur Valley" was to be visited.[23] This idea seems to have been reworked into the planned Jurassic World attraction Treetop Gazers.

Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom director J.A. Bayona revealed that the Brachiosaurus that died in the pyroclastic flow seen in the film is in fact the exact same Brachiosaurus first seen by Alan Grant and Ellie Sattler in the original Jurassic Park film, serving as a tragic end to the ill-fated ventures on Isla Nublar.[24] In addition, he said that the moment where the Brachiosaur is seen through the fire in the pyroclastic flow is a reference to E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, when E.T.'s heart glows.[25]

The Apatosaurus skull seen on JurassicWorld.com until it was removed does not belong to the dinosaur at all, rather it belongs to a Brachiosaurus. Its icon on JurassicWorld.com and the Holoscape is also of Brachiosaurus. Furthermore, Brachiosaurus vocalizations were also reused for Apatosaurus in the film as well.

Much like Tim, fans have confused Brachiosaurus in the first film for Brontosaurus.

Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 Jurassic Park III
  2. 2.0 2.1 As seen in a InGen report of the active dinosaurs on Nublar and Sorna, leaked by DPG.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Jurassic Park
  4. In Jurassic Park III, Dr. Alan Grant spots the Alpha Male of a Brachiosaurus herd, which has green skin. Though it is still uncertain if green-skinned Brachiosaurus are the males of their species as all the Brachiosaurus that appeared in Jurassic Park III had green skin.
  5. Jurassic World
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom
  7. https://www.instagram.com/p/BsN_xOXBI99/
  8. Arcadiamanifest.jpg: Arcadia manifest
  9. 329F9EC3-8927-401F-AB2A-1CC8A9F698B4.jpeg
  10. Phil Tippett (2014). Phil Tippett Interview - 5th February 2014, JurassicWorld.org, feb 5, 2014.
  11. Jurassic Park Topps trading cards #82
  12. stanwinstonshcool.com - JURASSIC PARK'S Brachiosaurus - Animatronic Rehearsal (March 23, 2013) Retrieved from https://www.stanwinstonschool.com/blog/rehearsing-jurassic-park-brachiosaurus-puppet#
  13. https://i.imgur.com/xpHRUSP.jpg The Making of Jurassic Park, pg. 59
  14. Ascher-Walash, Rebecca. (July 23, 1993) Jurassic Park science explained. Entertainment Weekly.
  15. The Making of Jurassic Park
  16. zbrushcentral.com - Interview: ILM on Jurassic World (February 3, 2016) Retrieved from http://www.zbrushcentral.com/showthread.php?198673-Interview-ILM-on-Jurassic-World
  17. Sosa, J.L. (2015, June 12) ‘I Was a Failed Gallimimus’: Jurassic Park Through The Eyes of One of Its Magic Creators. Retrieved http://filmschoolrejects.com/features/jurassic-park-tyruben-ellingson.php
  18. The Making of Jurassic Park, pp. 134-135.
  19. YouTube - Jurassic Park (1993) - Gary Rydstrom Sound FX
  20. Sullivan, Becky. (April 13, 2013) Jurassic Bark: How Sound Design Changed Our Imaginations. NPR
  21. Starwars.com Databank - Ronto (August 10, 2001 archive) Archived from https://web.archive.org/web/20010810183954/http://www.starwars.com/databank/creature/ronto/bts.html
  22. The Making of The Lost World: Jurassic Park, p. 58
  23. davelowerystoryboards - Jurassic World (July 31, 2015) Retrieved from http://dlstoryboards.blogspot.com/2015/07/jurassic-world_31.html
  24. https://www.empireonline.com/movies/features/18-jurassic-world-fallen-kingdom-secrets-ja-bayona-colin-trevorrow/
  25. https://twitter.com/FilmBayona/status/1027631414261547008/

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Jurassic Park Dinosaurs
BrachiosaurusDilophosaurusGallimimusParasaurolophusTriceratopsTyrannosaurus rexVelociraptor
Jurassic Park III Dinosaurs
AnkylosaurusBrachiosaurusCeratosaurusCompsognathusCorythosaurusParasaurolophusPteranodonSpinosaurusStegosaurusTriceratopsTyrannosaurus rexVelociraptor
Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom Dinosaurs
AllosaurusAnkylosaurusApatosaurusBaryonyxBrachiosaurusCarnotaurusCompsognathusGallimimusIndoraptorMosasaurusParasaurolophusPteranodonSinoceratopsStegosaurusStygimolochTriceratopsTyrannosaurus rexVelociraptor
Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous Dinosaurs
AnkylosaurusBaryonyxBrachiosaurusCarnotaurusCeratosaurusCompsognathusDimorphodonGallimimusIndominus rexMonolophosaurusMosasaurusOuranosaurusParasaurolophusParasaurolophus luxPteranodonScorpios rexSinoceratopsStegosaurusTyrannosaurus rexVelociraptor
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