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This article contains information taken from the (removed) Jurassic Park Institute site

"One of the earliest carnivores, we now know that Dilophosaurus is actually poisonous, spitting its venom at its prey, causing blindness and eventually paralysis, allowing the carnivore to eat at its leisure. This makes Dilophosaurus a beautiful, but deadly, addition to Jurassic Park."
Richard Kiley talking about Dilophosaurus on the tour.(src)

Dilophosaurus was one of the largest carnivorous dinosaurs of the Early Jurassic Period. Dilophosaurus gets its name from the two thin crests of bone on the top of its head. These were probably used as a display for courtship purposes. (It's frill and ability to spit venom at its prey is actually made up and no there is no proof if it had such abilities) Dilophosaurus has been found in the United States.

As a more primitive predatory dinosaur, Dilophosaurus didn't have forward facing eyes to give it stereo vision. It may have used scent as an integral part of its hunting technique. It had long and slender, rear-curving teeth in long jaws and strong front arms which would have been effective in grabbing prey. It was fast - probably with a top speed of about 30-mph. Footprints attributed to Dilophosaurus appear in groups, so it may have hunted in small packs. It shares the same overall body configuration as Coelophysis even though Dilophosaurus is currently classified as a member of a different group of theropods rather than Coelophysis and its relatives.[4]


Wikipedia
Wikipedia has a more detailed and comprehensive article on Dilophosaurus



Story

Creation

Seventeen Dilophosaurus were recreated by InGen[5][6] in their compound[7] on Isla Sorna where they raised by the workers there until a few months had passed where five were transported to the neighboring island of Isla Nublar for InGen's Jurassic Park.[6][8] They resided in the Dilophosaur Paddock of the park.[5]

The cloned Dilophosaurus had very abnormal traits that the original never had. These traits include a frill, venom glands, and a skull that resembled dromaeosaurids like Deinonychus and InGen's recreation of Velociraptor. The Dilophosaurus clones could spit venom at a range of 6 meters (20 feet) and would aim for their prey's face to stun it before the Dilophosaurus would come in for the kill.[9] The frill would expand and rattle when attacking or when preparing to attack.[5] They also were slightly smaller than their original counterpart, being 6 meters (20 feet) instead of 7 meters (23.25 feet) when fully grown, and lacked a fourth finger. The cloned Dilophosaurus is lacked in notch on the upper jaw. Like all of InGen’s theropods, they had pronated wrists.

It's likely that Dr. Henry Wu's inclusion of frog DNA or a splicing error that was responsible for the abnormal traits seen in the cloned Dilophosaurs. This is most likely possible, as Dr. Wu noted that Dilophosaurus genetic structure was compatible with the DNA of Dendrobates leucomelas (Yellow-banded poison dart frog).[10]

Jurassic Park Incident

"I thought you were one of your big brothers, you're not so bad."
Dennis Nedry talking to Dilophosaurus.(src)

The endorsement team was meant to see the Dilophosaurus in its paddock during their tour of Jurassic Park, but none revealed themselves to the visitors.[5]

The Dilophosaurus hiding behind a tree.

When Dennis Nedry turned off the park's security systems so he could steal InGen's dinosaur embryos, Dilophosaurus was one of the many dinosaurs that were free to roam the island. A juvenile Dilophosaur stalked Nedry himself when he was trying to get his vehicle unstuck out of a fallen tree limb. Feeling uneasy, Nedry stopped rope towing his jeep to face his stalker that was right behind him. Dennis Nedry tried to trick the dangerous dinosaur into fetching a stick for him, but the Dilophosaurus showed little care for the stick outside of the brief sound it made when it hit the forest floor. Angered that his trick was unsuccessful, Dennis Nedry jeered the Dilophosaur before running back to his jeep. However, when he turned back around, the "Dilo" was there, and it popped up its frill before spraying venom at Nedry. It landed on his rain coat, and Nedry ran to his vehicle. But before he could get in, another shot by the Dilophosaur hit him straight in the eyes. Poor Dennis managed to get in his vehicle, but he lost the counterfeit shaving cream can that held the dinosaur embryos he stole. When he shut the door, he realized with horror the "Dilo" was inside, and it proceeded to devour him.[5]

It was confirmed on the DPG website that all five Dilophosaurs residing on Nublar during the Jurassic Park incident had survived to 1994 at least.[6][11][12] Wild populations existed on Isla Sorna after Hurricane Clarissa struck the island because Dilophosaurus was among one of the information sheets given to the InGen Hunters during the Isla Sorna Incident and was also a screensaver for one of the computers inside the Fleetwood RV Mobile Lab that was used in the same incident.[8]

Hologram

A Dilophosaurus hologram in the Innovation Center.

No Dilophosaurus were known to have been held publicly in Jurassic World, nor was it listed on its official website as an attraction. However, the Innovation Center included it in the Holoscape along with other dinosaurs created by InGen. The glass of the Gyrosphere was designed to protect visitors from their spit, Jurassic World vets were trained to treat a common fungal infection in the folds of their frills, and The Evolution of Claire confirmed there was a pack of the animals in the park during 2004, implying it was taken out of public display at some point.[13][14][15]

During the Jurassic World Incident, the holographic display of Dilophosaurus was briefly used by Gray Mitchell to distract the Velociraptor Delta while he, Claire Dearing, Owen Grady, and his brother Zach Mitchell escaped the building.[13]

Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom

During the operation to retrieve a bone from the skeleton of the Indominus rex, Jack was briefly startled by the sound of a Dilophosaurus hooting in the jungle near the mercenaries' Main Street campsite. However, he resumed his work without encountering the dinosaur, likely because the approaching T. rex scared the smaller predator away.[16]

In the museum in Lockwood Manor, a Dilophosaurus statue can be seen fighting a brown Velociraptor statue. The Dilophosaurus in the estate is mainly green with red crests and frill.[16]

A viable embryo of the Dilophosaurus is also seen being salvaged and in the possession of Mills' mercenaries during Malcolm's voiced over final testimony with the committee.[16]


Gallery

Photos

Promotional Images

Jurassic Park

The Lost World

Jurassic World

Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom

Videos

Vocalizations

More information was added for the Dilophosaurus in the film, like the fact that the Dilphosaurus in the film were juveniles. Juveniles would hunt in packs, but only the leader was allowed to disable prey.[9] It is unknown if the adults hunted in packs like the younger individuals.

The Dilophosaurus bio with its adult size.

Dr. Laura Sorkin believed it was Dr. Henry Wu's inclusion of frog DNA or a splicing error that was responsible for the abnormal traits seen in the cloned Dilophosaurs, or at least the juveniles.[17]

Isla Nublar Incident (1993)

Nima Cruz, one of the agents hired to retrieve Dennis' Barbasol can, later scared off the Dilophosaurus that killed him, while it was eating his corpse.[18]

After she and her colleague Miles Chadwick retrieved the Barbasol can that had gotten lost when Dennis Nedry was disoriented from the venom on his face, another Dilophosaurus attacked Miles Chadwick. Reacting to the toxin sprayed in his eyes, Miles pulled out his handgun and began to fire at the dinosaur, successfully scaring it off. But it soon returned with its pack to finish what it had started. Once Nima repaired the jeep, they initiated their attack. The two humans attempted to flee but were cornered by the Dilophosaurus not long after their decision. Miles started firing his pistol before Nima told him not to, saying that he didn't to waste his bullets because there were too many Dilophosaurs. Instead, she suggested that they should try to distract the Dilophosaurus pack. Miles agreed, then shoved Nima to the ground and ran for it, hoping that they would attack her. However, the Dilophosauruses attacked Miles despite the circumstances, devouring him while Nima escaped in Nedry's jeep.

A Dilophosaurus preparing to attack Nima.

One pursued her while she was running to the staff vehicle and attempted to pounce on her, but was pushed aside by Nima when it did so. Once she had reached the vehicle, Nima dodged toxic spit from another Dilophosaurus that had encountered her at the start of the offensive that was on top of the jeep and then another Dilophosaur ran straight at Cruz only to receive a car door to the face. A Dilophosaur that behind the individual was hit by the car door proceeded to spit at Nima while she was inside the automobile, but she shielded herself from the venom by slamming the jeep's door. The rest of the pack began surround the vehicle with one jumping onto the jeep's hood trying to shatter the windshield even after Nima cranked the vehicle and was driving away. This Dilophosaurus was later flung off by the movements of the jeep and was hit by afterward.

The pack finally got another chance at killing Cruz when she crashed her recently acquired vehicle on a tree after her brief problem with the Dilophosaurus on her vehicle's roof leaving her to continue on foot. A Dilophosaurus pounced on Cruz and the two had a struggle. However, to the dismay of the Dilophosaurus pack, they had to end their pursuit of Cruz because of the arrival of the dangerous Troodon pack.

A Dilophosaurus attacking Billy Yoder.

The next day, Billy Yoder, a mercenary hired by InGen to rescue any survivors of the Isla Nublar Incident of 1993, had a skirmish with a Dilophosaurus while he was exploring one of Isla Nublar's jungles with fellow mercenary Oscar Morales. The two heard the Dilophosaurus upon entering the jungle, but it didn't choose to strike Billy Yoder until he had accidentally stepped on an egg that was inside a nearby nest (which could have belonged to the attacking dinosaur). Billy dodged the Dilophosaur's projectile attack right before it pounced on him, which in turn caused him to lose his assault rifle. Billy broke free of the Dilophosaur's grasp and dodged multiple attacks from it, but at the end of the fight the Dilophosaur pinned him to the ground again after he went to retrieve his rifle. Though before the conflict could continue further, Oscar Morales intervened by kicking the Dilophosaur off of Yoder very hard. Oscar wanted to kill the dinosaur, but Billy told him not to, saying that wasn't much of a threat now after it was hurt. The Dilo then ran off while Billy Yoder was stating his reasons not to kill it.[18]

Trivia

In the film, Dilophosaurus had a green color with dark markings and its frill was a bright yellow color with red patterns, but in Jurassic Park: The Game, it was a gray color with red markings and its frill is gray as well with a red circular line on it.

Jurassic Park: The Ride

In Jurassic Park: The Ride, a number of Dilophosaurs can be seen. The first one that appears in the ride feasting on the dead remains of passengers of a boat that had gone into despair in the Raptor Containment Area. A group of Dilophosaurus (two in the Hollywood version, three in the Universal Studios Orlando version) spit at the visitors as they go into the Water Treatment Facility.

In the Halloween event, Project Evilution, a scientist named Dr. Burton accidentally creates human-Dilophosaurus hybrids. When visitors encounter them, the hybrids want to eat them. At the end of the Project Evilution ride, they hang their creator.

Behind the scenes

Dilophosaurus, along with Procompsognathus and Troodon, are the only known venomous dinosaurs in the Jurassic Park franchise.

Dilophosaurus lived during the early Jurassic Period, before mosquitoes are currently confirmed by the fossil record to exist. If Jurassic Park was able to find any viable DNA specimens, there would have been very little to go on. This would mean that there would be more gaps than normal in the DNA sequence, subsequently filled by more frog DNA. This could explain why the Dilophosaurus are so different from their prehistoric counterparts, far more so than other dinosaurs.

The movie's Dilophosaurus was also sized down to prevent confusion with the raptors.[19] Because of its minor role, the filmmakers were able to not fully follow the storyboards involving the Dilo completely.[20] Similarly, Shane Mahan—head of the Stan Winston Studio team who created the Dilophosaur—went ahead and created the full-sized animatronic without making a full-size maquette, his reasons being that he was confident that his team did not require a full maquette to create it and because he "wanted to get right into the actual character."[19]

Shane Mahan detailing the heads of the final design of the Dilophosaurus animatronic.

The Stan Winston Studio team responsible for the creation of the Dilophosaur animatronic analyzed frame by frame a documentary featuring an ostrich which the used to create the hopping gait of its animatronic. Initially, a cam operated mechanism was created for one of its legs to follow the gait of an ostrich before a different mechanism was chosen. This later mechanism were rods coming out of its feet going beneath the floor and operated by a puppeteer.[21] Inspired by the Steadicam, Rick Galinson created the concept for its neck.[19] Each spring in the neck and head were sprung differently with each spring being heavier from the head the to the body, providing realistic movements.[21] This had mechanism had originally been proposed for the raptor, but Stan Winston Studio was not convinced that it would work on an animal that large, so the steady cam mechanism was transferred to the Dilophosaurus. After the mechanism was crated, Stan Winston was impressed by what Galinson had done and applied it to the animatronic of the Velociraptor's head and neck, scrapping an alternate design for the raptor animatronic.[19] The animatronic had three interchangeable heads: the frill in a lowered position, mechanized to allow the frill to open, and lastly the frill open and able to rattle as well as the ability to spit.[22] The frill itself was a sheet of latex rubber glued onto some support rods hooked to a pulley. When activated it rotate out and forward at the same time as it was coming off the animatronic Dilo's neck. Its ability to spit was a paintball mechanism with the spit itself being a mixture of methacyl and K-Y® Jelly with some food coloring. Underneath the tongue of the third head were two holes for the tubing that would have high-pressure air pumped through them to allow the animatronic the ability to "spit". The rest of the body, such as the head, tail, and arms were radio controlled.[21] Cable-actuated insert legs were also created to portray the Dilo's hop when it initially approaches Nedry. The hopping was created by the legs being suspended from stage catwalks on bungee cords.[23][22]

Unused paddock icon.

For the filming of Nedry's demise, a trench was built on the set for the path the Dilophosaurus would take as well as so that Shane Mahan could support and puppeteer the Dilo's legs while a crane above supported its body and the rest of the team responsible for its creation radio-controlled the other body parts of the animatronic upstairs. Because of the copious amount of water that was to be on the set during shooting, the soundstage used in the filming of the scene had a water tank underneath the set and was supposed to drain into the Los Angeles River, but the drainage system did not function well. This caused water to overflow into the puppeteering area, which lead to Mahan being given a riser to stand on just to get at least some of the water off of him, but the water level only got higher. The roaring of the water made it difficult to hear out of his headset making him unable to hear the film crew, which made him rely on video monitor stacked onto some Snapple boxes. But water got so high that this monitor floated away from Mahan and was rising to his chest. However, this was toward the end of filming and filming of the scene was filmed without Mahan drowning.[22][21] Director Steven Spielberg thought that the Dilophosaurus was going to be the easiest practical dinosaur to film in Jurassic Park, but was disappointed by the problems that occurred when filming of the scene.[24] The Dilophosaurus and Triceratops are the only dinosaurs to appear in Jurassic Park that did not use CGI, only using animatronics.

The sounds of the Dilophosaurus came from various sources. The hooting sounds it made were created from a swan call while the screeches it made when preparing to spit were created from a mixture of a hawk, howler monkey, an egret (that has a raspy call), and sound designer Gary Rydstrom making a croaking sound to give the dinosaur some body and weight. The rattling of its frill was also created from a rattlesnake and a "very exotic" insect.[25][26] [27]

The Jurassic Park trading card of Dilophosaurus incorrectly states that it is forty feet in height.[28] If this were the case that would mean the crested dinosaur would be taller than Spinosaurus and Tyrannosaurus as well as both its real life and film counterparts. This seems to have been an error by the publisher as the card "A Dilophosaur Drops By" gives a more accurate height of four feet for the film's Dilo.[29]

The Jurassic Park depiction of Dilophosaurus has been taken up by others. Several other video games, such as ParaWorld, Jurassic: The Hunted, Nanosaur, Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs, feature Dilophosaurus modeled after the representations in Jurassic Park. In Primal Carnage, the Dilophosaur can spit poison over long distances, but it doesn't have a frill. The Whitest Kids U'Know sketch "Dinosaur Rap" (a music video for Trevor Moore's "Gettin' High With Dinosaurs") features a Dilophosaurus, complete with a short frill.

The holographic Dilophosaurus in Jurassic World was the size of Delta the Velociraptor, providing more evidence that the Dilophosaurus in Jurassic Park was a juvenile. Additionally, Jack Ewins stated on Twitter that the RV's Dilophosaurus screensaver was accurate, cementing the first movie's depiction as a juvenile.[30] Furthermore, in archival behind-the-scenes material involving Steven Spielberg, Stan Winston, and Jack Horner, Winston explained that the Dilophosaurus being so small in the first film was due to it being a younger individual.[31]

Dilophosaurus was meant to appear proper in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, but it was cut from the final film.[32]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Dinosaur Field Guide, page 64
  2. InGen Field Guide, page 16
  3. 3.0 3.1 Seen on computer in Trailer, see picture in text
  4. Dinopedia on the JPI site
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Jurassic Park
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 As seen in a leaked InGen report of the active dinosaurs on Nublar and Sorna, leaked in 2018 by DPG.
  7. Jurassic Park III
  8. 8.0 8.1 The Lost World: Jurassic Park
  9. 9.0 9.1 Tour the Island
  10. KARYOLYSIS
  11. http://www.dinosaurprotectiongroup.com/what-killed-the-gene-guard-act.html What Killed the Gene Guard Act?
  12. http://www.dinosaurprotectiongroup.com/investigation-the-old-park.html Investigation: The Old Park
  13. 13.0 13.1 Jurassic World
  14. http://www.dinosaurprotectiongroup.com/the-importance-of-paleo-vets.html The Importance of Paleo-Vets
  15. The Evolution of Claire
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom
  17. InGen Field Journal, Dilophosaurus
  18. 18.0 18.1 Jurassic Park: The Game
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 The Making of Jurassic Park, pp. 35-36
  20. Jurassic Park Topps trading cards: #92 - Likeable But Lethal
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 JURASSIC PARK's Spitter - Building the Dilophosaurus Dinosaur puppet
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Mahan, Shane. (August 17, 2012) Jurassic Park's Spiter Attacks Nedry. Stan Winston School of Character Arts, excerpted from the book The Winston Effect: The Art & History of Stan Winston Studio.
  23. The Making of Jurassic Park, pp. 113-114.
  24. Sears, Rufus. (October 12, 2014) How Jurassic Park Became The Biggest Movie Of All Time. Empire Online, first published in Empire Magazine #50 (August 1993).
  25. The Making of Jurassic Park documentary
  26. The Making of Jurassic Park, p. 144.
  27. Buachann, Kyle. (June 9, 2015) You’ll Never Guess How the Dinosaur Sounds in Jurassic Park Were Made. Vulture.
  28. Jurassic Park Topps trading cards: #4 - Dilophosaurus
  29. Jurassic Park Topps trading cards: #44 - A Dilophosaur Drops By
  30. https://twitter.com/Jack_Ewins/status/1073297582015823872
  31. https://www.facebook.com/behindthegatesofficial/videos/2476983862520875/
  32. https://jurassicoutpost.com/jurassic-world-fallen-kingdom-almost-featured-dilophoaurus-but-dont-expect-the-deleted-scenes-to-be-released/

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