- "The most advanced amusement park in the entire world! Combining all the latest technologies. And I'm not just talking about rides, everybody has rides. No, we've made living biological attractions so astounding that they'll capture the imaginations of the entire planet!"
- —John Hammond(src)
Jurassic Park was a safari park and zoo created by InGen on Isla Nublar, a remote island off the west coast of Costa Rica. The park featured dinosaurs as attractions, which were cloned in special facilities on nearby Isla Sorna and brought to the park. While the park was planned to be opened in 1994, it was abandoned in the wake of the disastrous Isla Nublar Incident in 1993, during which numerous containment anomalies resulted in several deaths.
The park was planned to become a franchise, with a sister park planned on an island near Europe. The park was set to open with the basic dinosaur tour, which was in-progress when the Isla Nublar Incident began. The other rides were scheduled to come online within six-to-twelve months after the park was to be opened. After the incident, the park was abandoned, though it would be replaced over a decade later with the opening of Jurassic World, though it was forced to close in 2015. The remains of the park were destroyed by Mount Sibo, when it erupted in 2018.
The attractions on Jurassic Park were built in phases. During the events of Jurassic Park only a basic tour was realized. The attractions that were planned to be finished at the opening of the park in 1994 are Phase I. Phase II are attractions that would have been finished and opened later.
During the events of Jurassic Park only a basic tour was open for visitors at the time. Computer screens show that all dinosaur paddocks and fences were located in the mid eastern part of the island. Seven paddocks are shown on screen and six paddocks are named in the menu.
According to Jurassic Park: The Game other dinosaur paddocks were already build on the island, but there is no evidence that they were part of a finished tour.
This was the main attraction of the park. Officially named "Park Drive", it is also commonly referred to as the "Island Tour" or "Safari Adventure". It featured the heavily modified, electric Ford Explorers which visited each of the dinosaur enclosures on its self-guided tour, following a pre-determined track in a loop starting and ending at the visitor center in the west of the island. The voice on the CD-ROMs giving the tour was that of Richard Kiley. The Explorers also featured an intercom system for Car-To-Car communication as well as communication with the Control Room. The Tour started by the Explorers passing through the infamous Jurassic Park Main Gate.
One of the first dinosaur enclosures on the Jurassic Park tour was that of Dilophosaurus. The enclosure had a small electric fence with a notice saying for people to roll up the windows. The Dilophosaurus enclosure was notoriously badly designed due to a lack of proper sight lines and dense vegetation. The tour cars drive along a high ridge, overlooking a fast-moving river below. The river was almost enclosed by dense foliage on both sides. Due to these factors it was extremely difficult to catch a glimpse of its beautiful inhabitants.
The Tyrannosaur Paddock was probably the most viewed enclosure in the film, home to the Tyrannosaurus rex. The enclosure itself was separated from the road by a large electric fence, and had a security moat running partway between the fence and the enclosure. The enclosure also featured retractable mini-cages which housed small mammals for consumption by the inhabitants (i.e.- goat). This is used to lure the animals into view of the audience.
This enclosure was seen in the Triceratops scene. There was little grass in the enclosure (Trikes ate shrubs, not grass, which hadn't yet evolved during their time), but poisonous West Indian Lilac berries grew abundantly. Perhaps the enclosure with the best view of the animals residing within, the Triceratops enclosure was flat and vegetation was not too dense that it would cover the animals. From the touring vehicles guests could view far and wide throughout the enclosure.
The first encounter with the Brachiosaurus shows them and Parasaurolophus herding together. The enclosure was large grassy plains with occasional tall trees and a lake. This enclosure was particularly important because one must traverse through it in order to reach the Visitor's Center from the helipad.
This enclosure was seen in the Gallimimus stampede scene. The enclosure was surrounded by mountains and mostly consisted of plains with trees and the occasional root system. This was perhaps the largest enclosure within the park due to the herding nature of the Gallimimus. In the film, there were also hatched eggs and juveniles despite the control system of having all the dinosaurs female (but due to a gender-changing gene from a certain frog whose DNA was used with the dinosaurs of the park that quickly changed). The young also grew rapidly thanks to more genetic engineering.
The enclosure made a cameo appearance in the dinosaur egg scene, when Dr. Grant and the kids are heading back to the Visitor's Center. Not much of the enclosure is shown, but there is a concentration dense jungle within the enclosure. The only known appearance of the Velociraptors in this enclosure was the footprints of raptor hatchlings. This enclosure was not yet opened, with the raptors now in the Animal Containment Unit. According to Hammond, their new enclosure featured a viewing area with eight-inch glass and steel frames.
- "None of these attractions are ready yet, of course. The park will open with the basic tour you're about to take, and then other rides will come on line after six or twelve months. Absolutely spectacular designs. Spared no expense."
- —John Hammond(src)
Different maps of Isla Nublar appear in Jurassic Park Collectables. On these maps the park covers the entire island. These are probably different plans of what Jurassic Park was planned to look like after Phase A.
This paddock is where the medium-spined dinosaur Metriacanthosaurus (probably Yangchuanosaurus) was or was planned to be housed. It is located on the northeast side of the island next to the Triceratops Paddock.
Herrerasaur Paddock is located in the hills in the north of the island. It featured Herrerasaurus. This animal was meant to be a 'safe' alternative to the Velociraptor Exhibit.
The Bone Shaker rollercoaster was 90% complete up to the time of the InGen Incident. We are told that with sufficient testing that it and the other rides not based on the living exhibits were ready in advance of Phase II. A soft launch for Phase I was recommended given the financial pressure from InGen's investors. It is interesting that Muldoon and others had expressed concern over the amusement park’s proximity to the Hererrasaurus and Raptor enclosures; however, their concerns were waved away given the seemingly sound security measures in place.
This paddock is where the mid-sized Jurassic dinosaur Segisaurus was or was planned to be housed. It is located on the southeast side of the island near the river. It neighbors the second Triceratops Paddock.
This paddock is where the mid-sized Jurassic dinosaur Proceratosaurus was housed. It is located near the center of the island, south of the Jurassic Park Gate. It neighbors the Brachiosaurus Enclosure.
Jungle River Ride
Scheduled to have opened to visitors 6 months after the main park, The Marine Facility would have offered more revenue generation opportunities for the park. Phase II PR and marketing campaigns for this attraction were waiting for approval. The Tylosaurus (called Mosasaur) would have provided the star attraction as Jurassic Park’s ‘Devil from the Deep’. Newly hired marine animal behaviorists and redesigned safety protocols were to assure a thrilling and family friendly marine spectacular. (Jurassic Park: The Game element)
The aviary on Isla Nublar apparently wasn't scheduled for completion until Phase II of the park's construction. However, it is interesting that Pteranodons are seen flying on Isla Nublar, but perhaps they came from the unfinished aviary.
Other Dinosaurs that InGen made on Site B that most likely would have been added to the park later are Pachycephalosaurus, Carnotaurus, Edmontosaurus, Microceratus, Mamenchisaurus, Geosternbergia, Suchomimus, and Stegosaurus. A Troodon exhibit was planned but was shut down after it was determined that they were too unpopular and dangerous, as they were both poisonous and smarter than all other dinosaurs, including the Velociraptors.
Park Places and Other Locations
Jurassic Park Visitors Center
see Visitor Center
The hub of the park was the Jurassic Park Visitors Center, which seen from the outside had stone walls with fossil designs engraved into it, flowing water ducts framing both sides of the steps and had a thatched roof. Inside, the main hall featured skeletons of a Sauropod being attacked by a Tyrannosaur. Other parts of the center included a cafe with dinosaur murals on it, a gift shop in the cafe, a scientific lab (presumably for show purposes only), the park's main control center, embryonic storage, and a circulating movie room.
There was also a conference room with one table and several projection devices for use in presentations regarding the park. The guest dorms had bars crudely placed on its windows and skyline after an incident regarding an escaped Velociraptor. It appears that the Jurassic Park Visitor Center was never fully completed before the Isla Nublar Incident, as there was an entire wall to the outside left unfinished (it is presumed that a door was intended here), covered by a large sheet of plastic drop cloth. This opening was notably large enough that a tyrannosaur could just walk through.
see Raptor Pen
The Raptor Pen was a relatively small enclosure when compared to its counterparts throughout the park. However, this was actually not the raptor's intended enclosure, but rather a quarantine pen. For the safety of both the animals and the staff, it was decided to relocate the raptors to a temporary holding pen to feed them. The enclosure itself featured its own "lookout" tower to oversee the animals as well as a custom feeding mechanism which would lower live-feed, in the form of livestock, to the floor of the pen for consumption.
Perimeter Fence and Gates
The park was surrounded by a large, high, perimenter fence. The fence had a 10,000 volt charge running through it that was shown by orange and blue flashing lights atop the fence. To decrease the risk of human casualties the fences were armed with loud alarms that would sound when the fence was to be activated. Each species of dinosaur also had fences around their particular enclosure to ensure there would not be intermingling of certain species. The perimeter fence featured a number of large gates which would allow passage to vehicles and humans through electronic locking mechanisms.
The Emergency Bunker was a semi-underground building that was used when Ray Arnold ventured off by himself to reset the park's main breakers in the power shed. The bunker appears to be outfitted with gear necessary for surviving a loss of control over the park (as happened during the Isla Nublar Incident); two-way radios and heavy weaponry are stored in the facility. The location of the bunker appears to be nearly adjacent to the Raptor Pen which was clearly an unwise choice by the developers.
see Maintenance Shed
The power shed basically was a small shed which led to a series of underground tunnels where the main and backup power generators for the entire island could be activated manually. It was situated near the Visitor's Center and the Raptor Pen. Inside, some small stairs led down into a complex maze of passages. This inconspicuous structure was located primarily underground presumably to keep electronic equipment cool.
see East Dock
Like the name implies, it is a dock on the eastern side of the island. It is designed for cargo ships, to import supplier that cannot be manufactured on the island. Staff also use the ships at this dock for transport to and from the mainland. Unfortunately, Hammond didn't supply the money to build an artificial harbor, meaning any ships at the East Dock would have to leave in case of bad weather for safety reasons. Nedry attempted to deliver the stolen embryos to his Biosyn contact on the East Dock, but ended up getting lost.
see North Dock
The dock on the north side of the island was designed with cruise ships in mind, and would be the main way that the majority of visitors would've entered Jurassic Park. The North Dock would be staffed by tour guides, and would feature a hop-on station for special VIP vehicles that would take guest to the Visitor's Center. The road would've passed by the Herrerasaurus and Velociraptor enclosures. The North Dock had a raised walkway to attach to the upper entryways of a cruise ship, while the ground level was for the loading and unloading of cargo and luggage. One side of the dock contained a large number of shipping containers, and several medium-sized dinosaur cages.
Dinosaurs in the park
All the dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals that InGen cloned were probably planned to be exhibited at Jurassic Park at some point. This is a list of all the animals that were probably present at the park during the Isla Nublar Incident:
- Baryonyx (Was planned, already created on Isla Sorna likely awaiting to be shipped to the island)
- Brachiosaurus (6)
- Compsognathus (28)
- Corythosaurus (Was planned, embryos were in the Cold Storage Room, but the genome, being 97% complete, wasn't completed before the incident on Isla Nublar)
- Dilophosaurus (5)
- Gallimimus (24)
- Herrerasaurus (5)
- Metriacanthosaurus (71% of its genome was completed)
- Parasaurolophus (15)
- Proceratosaurus (Paddock was planned, but all embryos were destroyed)
- Pteranodon (3)
- Segisaurus (48% of its genome was completed)
- Stegosaurus (was on Isla Sorna at the time and embryos were present in the Cold Storage Room)
- Triceratops (3)
- Troodon pectinodon
- Tylosaurus (1)
- Tyrannosaurus rex (1, with another planned to be added)
- Velociraptor (8, however all but 3 were killed by the beginning of the first movie)
According to information from the Dinosaur Protection Group , these prehistoric creatures were having the DNA sequence of their genome being completed before the incident of Isla Nublar took place; possibly implying that they were planned to future attractions. The exact location of where their DNA was being extracted from is still a mystery; it could have either taken place on Isla Nublar or Isla Sorna. Also, it should be noted that Ingen did indeed complete the DNA sequencing of some species of dinosaurs on Site B It should be noted that eventually, these creatures were exhibited in Jurassic World. They include the following:
- Allosaurus (genome was 12% complete)
- Ankylosaurus (genome was 91% complete)
- Apatosaurus (genome was 57% complete)
- Carnotaurus (was on Isla Sorna at the time)
- Dimorphodon (genome was 36% complete)
- Edmontosaurus (was on Isla Sorna at the time)
- Euoplocephalus (genome was 9% complete)
- Mamenchisaurus (was on Isla Sorna at the time)
- Microceratus (was on Isla Sorna at the time)
- Pachycephalosaurus (was on Isla Sorna at the time)
- Pachyrhinosaurus (genome was 8% complete)
- Suchomimus (genome was 75% complete)
Jurassic Park, like Disneyland before it, was a one-of-a-kind attraction, and as a result it had a great deal of problems that the developers had either failed or were unable to foresee.
- Ray Arnold states that in addition to the above, they have all the problems of a major theme park and animal zoo.
- Triceratops and several herbivores getting blisters on their tongues and diarrhea because they had eaten the West Indian lilac as that species of plant wasn't at the time of the dinosaurs.
- The Nedry Virus (Whte rbt.obj) which started the Isla Nublar Incident.
- Velociraptors quarantined because of The Big One.
- Herrerasaurs on the site of the park's roller coaster The Bone Shaker. (Jurassic Park: The Game element)
- Troodon quarantined because of them being the most dangerous creature. (Jurassic Park: The Game element)
- Jungle River Cruise was unsafe as it passed through the Dilophosaur paddock. The dinosaurs used their dense forested enclosure as their advantage to surprise and attack visitors.
Following the Isla Nublar Incident of 1993 and the deaths of several people, the park in its unfinished state was abandoned by InGen and the dinosaurs left to their own devices. When Masrani Global began construction of Jurassic World in 2003, the new park was built in the southern part of Isla Nublar, and the old park in the northern part of the island was designated a "Restricted Area". After 22 years of unchecked growth, most of Jurassic Park was reclaimed by the jungle. The Visitor's Center in particular was barely visible in the thick jungle, its famous double doors being the only distinguishing feature. Inside, debris littered the building, with the dome cracked in places and the T. rex skeleton crumbled in pieces. The abandoned Visitor's Center suffered further damage during the Isla Nublar Incident of 2015, after the Indominus rex breached into the old building while chasing Owen Grady and Claire Dearing.