Parasaurolophus is a hadrosaurid (sometimes called a duck-billed dinosaur) from approximately 76.5–73 million years ago (late Cretaceous). It is a herd animal feeding on the park’s rich vegetation. The most stunning feature of the Parasaurolophus is the crest on its head. Scientists were unsure of its function until today. Some believed it was a snorkel for when the animal was in water, others felt that it was used in combat. We now know that it serves for display and for communication, allowing the animals to remain in contact over distance by amplifying their haunting, beautiful cries.
The clones resembled the species Parasaurolophus walkeri but were shorter than the real animal, being 7 meters (23.25ft) in length instead of 10 meters (33 ft). Although the clones are capable of walking on all fours and two legs, it mostly stood upright, nearly dragging its tail, unlike the original.
They had three skin variations, beige, greenish, and beige green. The ones seen in the Brachiosaurus Enclosure were also a greenish color.Their crests would vary in color as well, with some having black, and dark gray crests.
Visitor Center Mural
Inside Jurassic Park's Visitor Center is a mural depicting Parasaurolophus. The depiction is somewhat different than the Parasaur clones that have been encountered. They display the two species Parasaurolophus cyrtocristatus and Parasaurolophus walkeri. The P. walkeri are depicted as dark green with the front half of the crest being a dark red with its body bearing a single black stripe. The P. cyrtocristatus have a different color scheme being a lime color with the upper body being a dark green albeit split in the middle.
This mural is based on an old belief that P. walkeri and P. cyrtocristatus were not separate species but rather represented the male and female respectively of one single species. Seeing as how there is no evidence of P. cyrtocristatus (or at least clones that resembled this species) ever being created or encountered as well as the fact that the mural depicts Velociraptors as dark green that also has no evidence of ever being created or encountered like the previously mentioned Parasaurolophus species, it can be safely assumed that this is simply an artistic rendering rather than evidence that P. cyrtocristatus was recreated by InGen.
It is unknown what happened to the Parasaur populations on Isla Nublar after the Isla Nublar Incident of 1993.
Wild on Isla Sorna
When Hurricane Clarissa hit Isla Sorna, the InGen personnel evacuated the island with the Parasaurs that were under their care being freed by them or by the hadrosaurs freeing themselves. In the wild, they countered the Lysine contingency by eating Lysine rich plants.
They had a wide range of territory on the island. In the east, they coexisted with Gallimimus, Pachycephalosaurus, and Mamenchisaurus. In the west, they lived alongside with Ankylosaurus, Brachiosaurus, Stegosaurus, and Triceratops, even forming mixed herds with the related hadrosaur Corythosaurus.
The InGen Hunters captured a Parasaurolophus that their leader, Roland Tembo, named Elvis because its crest resembled a pompadour like Elvis Presley had. This individual would later be freed by Gatherers Nick Van Owen and Dr. Sarah Harding the following night it was captured by the hunters, though it is unknown if the Parasaur survived.
In 1999, InGen was in possession (or had created) an infant Parasaurolophus. When Simon Masrani went to oversee the genetics company a year after he had purchased it, he got to hold the young Parasaur.
When the search group for Eric Kirby was running from the Velociraptor pack who they encountered in the InGen Compound that Billy Brennan (one of their members) stole eggs from, they ran through a mixed herd of Parasaurolophus and Corythosaurus that was outside the InGen Compound.
Later, Parasaurolophus was one of the many dinosaurs that Dr. Alan Grant and the Kirby family saw on a riverbank.
Parasaurolophus was one of the many dinosaurs that lived as an attraction for Masrani Global Corporation's Jurassic World. Because of their close resemblance to the previously created clones, it is possible that those that lived in the park originated from the dinosaurs transported from Isla Sorna in 2004. However, the images on Jurassic World's website depict them with a longer and more curved crest. On the website, its skin was a mixture of tan and brown with the crest and the upper part of the head being mint green.
The juveniles, unlike the originals, had crests at an early age.
A Parasaurolophus made brief appearances in the Cretaceous Cruise and the Gentle Giants Petting Zoo.
Gray and Zach saw several Parasaurs during their time in the Gyrosphere Valley. While Zach and Gray looked at the open gate for perimeter fence #5, two Parasaurs were seen fighting and honking at each other in the background.
It has been revealed that there are surviving Parasaurolophus populations on Isla Nublar, but they and many other dinosaurs will now face an impending danger in the form of an erupting volcano. One Parasaur could be seen swimming in the ocean when Mount Sibo erupts. It attempts to climb onto a rock, but loses its grip and is hit by a falling rock, presumably killing it. Some Parasaurs were captured and taken to Lockwood Manor to be sold off in auction, but thanks to Claire and Maisie, they would eventually escape the estate along with the other dinosaurs.
In The Lost World a Parasaurolophus herd lives near the river close to a Apatosaurus herd. The large Apatosaurus give protection, whereas the smaller and weaker Parasaurolophus have better eyes and can warn the dinosaurs for predators.
In the park's Parasaurolophus herd, there would be a member that would observe the surrounding area for any threats to the herd and would alert it if there were any nearby. From the research conducted by Dr. Laura Sorkin and her assitant David Banks the coloration of their crests were unique for each social clique. In a Parasaurolophus herd, there would be a member that would observe the surrounding area for any threats to the herd and would alert it if there were any nearby.
These clones are mainly bright yellow with purple crests.
When the clones were a few months old they would be transported to the neighboring island Isla Nublar to live as an attraction for InGen's Jurassic Park. Four lived in the self-titled Parasaurolophus Paddock.
When Dennis Nedry disabled Jurassic Park's security systems, the Parasaurolophus in the Brachiosaurus Enclosure were able to roam freely, however, the hadrosaurs inside the Parasaurolophus Paddock could not escape their paddock.
When confronted by the remaining survivors and mercenaries on Isla Nublar, Dr. Sorkin insisted that they put Lysine into the water supply of the Parasaur Paddock to save its inhabitants from death via the Lysine contingency, to which she and Dr. Gerry Harding and his daughter Jess Harding scare the Parasaurs out of their paddock and helped her achieve her goal. But after releasing Lysine into the water supply, a pack of Velociraptors attacked the herd and killed the Parasaurolophus that was the lookout of her herd.
Jurassic Park's Tyrannosaurus rex later hunted a Parasaurolophus, but did not kill it. Nima Cruz and Billy Yoder witnessed this hunt. The hadrosaur's large tubular crest broke the branch that Yoder was hanging off of after the T. rex unintentionally through scrap metal from the helicopter Billy had used previously, causing him to fall to the ground. Billy survived, but this caused the T. rex to decide to hunt him instead of the Parasaur. Concurrently, a Velociraptor was feeding on a Parasaurolophus carcass inside the Parasaur Paddock (which was probably the lookout) when the Tyrannosaurus, Nima, and Yoder entered the paddock. It was the only member of its pack interested in the carcass as the other raptors were pursuing Sorkin and the Hardings. She began to feed on the carcass and while doing so killed the Raptor who was originally eating it. She later abandoned this carcass after she discovered Billy when he returned to the paddock to retrieve the Barbasol can he had dropped.
Parasaurolophus was one of the many dinosaurs created by InGen on Isla Sorna for Jurassic Park that later went wild. It is presumed that most of the clones history was the same as the first three films. One Parasaurolophus was known to have had green and blue scales and was apparently nocturnal.
A male Parasaurolophus is encountered in the The Lost World: Jurassic Park arcade game.
Parasaurolophus was originally going to appear in the The Lost World: Jurassic Park console game, but was cut; apparently the files for Parasaurolophus were lost. The Prey Gallery jokingly stated that it 'was eaten by a vicious pack of 3D Raptors before it could make it safely into the game'.
Parasaurolophus is nr. 084 of the Herbivore Twos that can be created in Jurassic Park III: Park Builder.
It was planned to appear in Jurassic Park: Survival.
Parasaurolophus is one of the available dinosaurs in the IOS application, Jurassic Park: Builder.
Parasaurolophus appears in Jurassic Park: Trespasser. It is first encountered in the Jungle Road level near Cathy's Beach. It is later seen again in the Industrial Jungle, wandering dangerously close to a Tyrannosaurus, with another Para near the Smuggler's Plane.
Unlike its film version, this Para is yellow/orange with black spots. It doesn't live in herds, and in all locations only a single Para is located. The creature is easily frightened by Anne.
Parasaurolophus is a 3 star Large Herbivore in Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis and are shown as those from The Lost World. They come from the same dig site as Acrocanthosaurus and Torosaurus. They can be paired with Edmontosaurus, Corythosaurus, or Ouranosaurus (despite the fact that Parasaurolophus and Ouranosaurus didn't live in the same period or place). They are favored prey for Acrocanthosaurus (despite the fact that Parasaurolophus and Acrocanthosaurus didn't live in the same period) and Albertosaurus. They make a soothing, resonant piping sound. They also closely resemble the Parasaurs from The Lost World film.
Jurassic Park: Explorer
Parasaurolophus appeared in the game Jurassic Park: Explorer.
Parasaurolophus is seen in Jurassic World: The Game as a super rare herbivore.
Parasaurolophus was in LEGO: Jurassic World and did many of the same things as Parasaurolophus did in The Lost World, Jurassic Park III and Jurassic World. Like all the other dinosaurs, Parasaurolophus sometimes participates in humorous antics, due to the game's comical nature.
Parasaurolophus will appear in Jurassic World: Evolution, seen in the announcement trailer.
Parasaurolophus will be in Jurassic World: Alive.
A Parasaurolophus toy was released as a part of this toy line.
A maquette of Parasaurolophus was one of the toys in this line.
A Parasaurolophus "Hero Masher" was one of the toys of this line. Its parts can be used with other toys in the line to make unique creations.
A mini Parasaurolophus figure is featured as part of the main line's Mini Dinos assortment, and a new figure will be release as part of the "Dino Rivals" line.
On the Jurassic Park: River Adventure in the Islands of Adventure, a male Parasaurolophus knocks your vehicle off track from entering Hadrosaur Cove and into the Velociraptor containment area. Another spits water at you.
Behind the scenes
Parasaurolophus, despite appearing physically in the first three films, is absent from the scripts of the aforementioned films, or is at least not mentioned by name. In Jurassic Park, the Parasaurs appear to have filled the role of both Hadrosaurus and Maiasaura from the novel, most notably the former as both Hadrosaurus in the novel and Parasaurolophus in the film lived alongside a species of sauropod at a watering hole.
When creating the concept art for the Parasaurolophus featured in the first film, Mark "Crash" McCreery used a duck's bill as a reference when creating the hadrosaur's mouth and the eyes of a deer to make the dinosaur seem quiet and docile. Two proposed colorations were made by "Crash" McCreery. One was a beige color with a dark gray crest and back with dark brown stripes on the thigh and the other's coloration had the whole head and neck as red, the torso being a darker tan with some of this tan being on its back instead of black like the first coloration and the stripes on its thigh being black as opposed to dark brown. The final film's Parasaurs have greenish colored skin with a black back and seemingly lacks striping while its other details are unidentifiable due to the duckbill dinosaurs being difficult to see clearly. TyRuben Ellingson painted the digital maps used for the color of the Parasaurolophus as well as the Brachiosaurus in Jurassic Park. At one point, sexual dimorphism was considered, with the species P. walkeri being the males and the females being the species P. cyrtocristatus.The mural of the dinning room featuring Parasaurolophus painted by Doug Henderson still utilizes this scrapped idea.
Oddly, the section "Exploring Jurassic Park Part 2" of the Topps comic Jurassic Park II and the Jurassic Park Topps card for Parasaurolophus states that it was cut from Jurassic Park even though a herd can be seen at the Watering Hole with Brachiosaurus.
An alternate opening to The Lost World: Jurassic Park was for a Japanese fishing boat to pull up a Parasaurolophus carcass in its net, to which the net breaks from the weight of the carcass and disappears into the waters below. Paul Mejias supervised the construction of this sculpture and even though this alternate opening scene never made the final cut, the eighteen-foot carcass was still used in the film in the scenes taking place in the Tyrannosaurus nest and the boneyard. It was later repainted for Jurassic Park III to represent the carcass that the T. rex was eating.
In the script for The Lost World: Jurassic Park, instead of the Parasaurolophus Elvis, Dieter Stark captures a Corythosaurus (misspelled "Carninthosaur" in the script). Though this scene was cut from the final film, it is included in Mighty Chronicles adaptation of The Lost World Jurassic Park. This early design choice is also referenced in the film itself with one of the Hunters carrying a factsheet of Corythosaurus and Roland even misidentifies the Parasaur Elvis as a corythosaur, but is unable to pronouce it.
Paul Mejias sculpted and painted a 1/7th scale model from one of McCreery's designs that stood 17 inches tall. Unlike the concept art, this painted maquette was a bright yellow. The head was also not completely red, with the crest being black and the only red found on its body being only on the back of its neck. Ultimately, the final sequence would feature the color of Parasaurolophus as having more of an earth tone and less red on the neck. A further two maquettes were made to reflect the change to earth tones with one having less red on the back of the neck than the other, the one with less red on the neck being nearly identical to the color scheme seen in the finished film. Another fully poseable maquette was created to serve as a reference for modeling the full sized carcass.
Originally, the stamped scene in Jurassic Park III was to feature solely Parasaurolophus with their model reused from The Lost World: Jurassic Park, but Corythosaurus was added to the stamped when director Joe Johnston and visual effects supervisor Jim Mitchell felt there needed to be more variety. The Corythosaurus was created from the Parasaurolophus model from The Lost World: Jurassic Park. The Parasaurolophus from the film received a new color scheme.
The Parasaurolophus in Jurassic Park: The Game appears to have been based on several Parasaur designs that were never seen physically in the films. They have bright yellow skin much like one of the Parasaurolophus maquettes made for The Lost World: Jurassic Park and the front half of the crest is red just like the lone Parasaurolophus walkeri seen on one of the murals of the Jurassic Park Visitors' Centre.
Despite its appearances usually being little more than cameos, Parasaurolophus has physically appeared on-screen in all five films of the Jurassic Park franchise, a distinction shared with the more famous and iconic Tyrannosaurus, Triceratops, and Velociraptor.
Notes and references
|Jurassic Park Dinosaurs|
|Brachiosaurus • Dilophosaurus • Gallimimus • Parasaurolophus • Triceratops • Tyrannosaurus rex • Velociraptor|
|Jurassic Park: The Game Dinosaurs|
|Compsognathus • Dilophosaurus • Herrerasaurus • Parasaurolophus • Pteranodon • Troodon • Triceratops • Tylosaurus • Tyrannosaurus rex • Velociraptor|
|The Lost World: Jurassic Park Dinosaurs|
|Compsognathus • Gallimimus • Mamenchisaurus • Pachycephalosaurus • Parasaurolophus • Pteranodon • Stegosaurus • Triceratops • Tyrannosaurus rex • Velociraptor|
|Jurassic Park III Dinosaurs|
|Ankylosaurus • Brachiosaurus • Ceratosaurus • Compsognathus • Corythosaurus • Parasaurolophus • Pteranodon • Spinosaurus • Stegosaurus • Triceratops • Tyrannosaurus rex • Velociraptor|
|Jurassic World Dinosaurs|
|Ankylosaurus • Apatosaurus • Dimorphodon • Gallimimus • Indominus rex • Mosasaurus • Pachycephalosaurus • Parasaurolophus • Pteranodon • Stegosaurus • Triceratops • Tyrannosaurus rex • Velociraptor|
|Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom Dinosaurs|
|Allosaurus • Ankylosaurus • Apatosaurus • Baryonyx • Brachiosaurus • Carnotaurus • Compsognathus • Gallimimus • Indoraptor • Mosasaurus • Parasaurolophus • Pteranodon • Sinoceratops • Stegosaurus • Stygimoloch • Triceratops • Tyrannosaurus rex • Velociraptor|