- "Spinosaurus aegyptiacus."
"I don't remember that on InGen's list."
- —Alan Grant and Billy Brennan(src)
Spinosaurus (meaning "spined lizard") is an extinct genus of spinosaurid theropod dinosaur that existed in what is now North Africa during the Cretaceous period. Spinosaurus is the largest of all known carnivorous dinosaurs, even larger than Carcharodontosaurus, Giganotosaurus, and Tyrannosaurus rex.
Its most distinctive feature was the huge sail-like fin on its back. This sail was comprised of spines that extended from the top of the backbones of all dinosaurs and backboned animals. The spines of Spinosaurus were tremendous, the longest one found measured over 1.7 meters (5 feet) tall. The sail might have been used to attract a mate, making it look bigger to other predators it shares with, or act as a dorsal fin as it moves through the water.
- 1 History
- 2 Gallery
- 3 Trivia
- 4 Behind the scenes
- 5 Notes and references
- 6 Navigation
Shortly after the acquisition of InGen by Masrani Global Corporation and after the passing of the Gene Guard Act, in 1999, several unnamed InGen scientists were sent to Isla Sorna to clone several dinosaurs in secret for genetic experiments and amalgam testing. Spinosaurus was one of the few dinosaurs cloned in the Embryonics Administration lab, alongside Ankylosaurus, Ceratosaurus, and Corythosaurus, sometime after 1997. As such, and being far after the Isla Nublar Incident, it was not a dinosaur on InGen's List and was not planned to be an attraction in Jurassic Park. It, along with the other new species, was later released to the ecosystem and every trace of its creation was covered up. It is not known if the company had its DNA before, as it did not appear on InGen's list previously.
The body color of the Spinosaurus was a mixture of dark and light gray, a yellowed underbelly, and red splotches around its face, across its back, and at the end of its tail. The sail had blue circles, possibly for attracting the opposite sex. Like all of InGen's cloned theropods, it had pronated wrists. The cloned Spinosaurus had strong jaws, powerful forearms, immense strength, a thick hide, and a more terrestrial lifestyle with a shorter sail. The skull also had several differences from the original, such as being slightly broader and bearing two head crests on each side of the snout instead of just one crest in the middle of the snout. Most of its snout and its teeth resembled Baryonyx with an estimated 76 teeth in the dinosaur's palate. It also lacks the paddle-like tail. It has tall hind legs like all theropods instead of short hind legs.
In the wild
After being cloned and experimented on for 9 months in the late 90s, the unnamed InGen personnel set the dinosaur free alongside the other illegally bred dinosaurs. It was seemingly the largest carnivorous dinosaur on Isla Sorna, being 6 meters (19.7 feet) tall (including the sail), 13.4 meters (43.8 feet) long and weighing 8 tons (16,000 pounds).
Being created illegally and without the knowledge of InGen or Masrani higher-ups, it is unknown if the Spinosaurus and the other new dinosaurs were affected by or were even bred to include the lysine deficiency that affected the original dinosaurs.
There is only one individual known to have lived on the island. It took residence in the jungles of the northeast and became the apex predator of the region. The Spinosaurus was extremely territorial and seemed to have a biological interest in taking down its competitor, the Tyrannosaurus rex, the previously dominant apex predator on the island.
Isla Sorna incident of 2001
During his time lost on Isla Sorna Eric Kirby learned that though Tyrannosaurus rex urine can scare off small dinosaurs like Compsognathus, it can also attract Spinosaurus, which reinforces the territoriality of Spinosaurus in relation to Tyrannosaurus.
Amanda Kirby, Eric's mother, apparently attracted a Spinosaurus that would follow her and her group throughout the incident by shouting her missing son's name through a megaphone. Cooper, one of the mercenaries hired by the Kirby family, spotted the large dinosaur and began to fire his rifle at it as his fellow mercenaries, Udesky and M.B. Nash, fled the area. The attack failed to stop the Spinosaurus and the dinosaur injured its attacker's arm. This caused Cooper's group to desperately attempt to leave the island in their plane.
Cooper ran in front of the plane as it taxied down the airstrip, and tried to convince Nash to stop the plane. The Spinosaurus quickly emerged to the right of the wounded mercenary and proceeded to devour him just as the plane prepared to lift off. The airplane collided with the Spinosaurus's flank just seconds after it takes the life of its first victim. The collision dealt nothing more than a minor injury to the large theropod, though the plane crashed into a tree in the surrounding jungle.
The Spinosaurus soon quickly found the rest of Cooper's group inside the damaged airplane, removed the cockpit and grabbed Nash's leg with its strong jaws. Nash desperately fought against the Spinosaurus grip by grabbing Amanda Kirby's legs but despite his and Udesky's efforts, he was swiftly pulled out of the plane and killed as he tried to crawl away. The Spinosaurus gave out a loud roar that shook the plane violently until it fell out of the tree and onto the ground below. With the passengers now under its feet, the Spinosaurus continued its rampage. The Spinosaurus then proceeded to roll the already damaged airplane towards itself, flatten it with its foot and rammed its head into the remaining portion, searching for the humans inside. Dr. Alan Grant and his team fled from the wreckage the Spinosaurus was scavenging, hoping it would lose sight of them. The Spinosaurus was quick to follow and began to chase them throughout the jungle only to be stopped by a patch of trees that temporarily blocked it from continuing its pursuit. The Spinosaurus managed to make its way around the blockage and met up with its prey soon afterward fleeing from the Tyrannosaurus.
A conflict ensued as soon as the Spinosaurus and the Tyrannosaurus rex saw one another. The Tyrannosaurus was the first to strike, he clamped down on the Spinosaurus' neck using his strong jaws, pinning it to the ground. Nonetheless, the Spinosaurus briskly got back on its feet and broke free of the Tyrannosaurus grip, taking the chance to try and bite its opponent's flanks, with the T. rex doing the same as well. The T. rex then decided to charge headfirst into the Spinosaurus, pushing it forward, though this left him vulnerable to its next strike. The Spinosaurus bit down on the Tyrannosaurus neck, proceeded to grab it with its powerful forearms and snapped it, killing the Tyrannosaurus rex. The Spinosaurus roared triumphantly as it claimed the carcass of its recent kill. The battle allowed the human visitors to finally escape from the vicious Spinosaurus, but they would encounter the giant theropod several times throughout the incident.
When the Spinosaurus consumed the mercenaries, their clothes and gear were undigested. The most notable of the objects was Paul Kirby's satellite phone that he gave to Nash that would ring inside its stomach. Eric Kirby, who had just met Alan Grant, heard this ringing of his father's satellite phone and assumed his family was in the area. Though he and Dr. Alan Grant did indeed reunite with his family on the opposite sides of the Isla Sorna Aviary observatory's large perimeter fence, they all were soon aware of the Spinosaurus's presence behind them after they realized that Paul lacked his phone.
As soon as the recently reunited group saw the Spinosaurus it began to chase Eric and Alan, but the two reached the other side of the fence by crawling through a hole that was in it. For a brief moment, the predator seemed to have been detoured, unable to get past the fence, until the Spinosaurus smashed through the perimeter fence. With their only means of defense against the Spinosaurus penetrated, Dr. Alan Grant, the Kirby family, and his colleague Billy Brennan fled towards the Isla Sorna Field Lab. Once inside, Paul Kirby and Alan Grant barricaded the doors right before the Spinosaurus could get inside. Unlike the fence that surrounded the laboratory, the doors successfully prevented the Spinosaurus from penetrating them. Uninterested, the dinosaur soon left.
The group later reacquired the satellite phone from scavenging through the Spinosaurus's dung that contained the remains of Nash and Cooper. The smell of the large predator's dung discouraged a Ceratosaurus from potentially attacking them.
The Spinosaurus made one last attempt at killing the humans before the incident ended by stalking their boat they used to escape from the Isla Sorna Aviary from its inhabitants during a thunderstorm that began at night. It swam silently, hidden beneath the deep waters of the river that were rising as the rain from the storm fell, the only indication of its presence being the native Bonitos swimming away in fear of it and the tip of its sail emerging from the water. The Spinosaurus began its attack by ramming into the back of the boat, emerged from the water, and proceeded to severely damage the boat's center console and the fuel tank, causing it to leak rapidly.
The Kirby family and Alan Grant locked themselves in a large cage on the watercraft for protection from the rampage of the Spinosaurus. However, their attempt was rendered futile when the Spinosaurus pulled the cage into the water, nearly drowning the people inside as it became submerged. While the Spinosaurus thrashed in the water searching for them, the entrapment landed on some rocks, allowing the top portion of the enclosure to surface and giving the trapped humans the oxygen they needed, though the dinosaur quickly used this to its advantage. It put its arm in the cage and grabbed Amanda Kirby, preparing to kill her. Her husband, Paul, who swam out of the cage once it submerged, successfully distracted the predator by shouting from a half-submerged crane he had just climbed. This, in turn, allowed the others to escape the cage.
With Paul Kirby gaining its full attention, the Spinosaurus responded to his calls by giving the crane two nudges with its head, causing Paul Kirby to almost fall into the raging river below, dangling with nothing else to hold on to. Afterward, Dr. Alan Grant found the boat's flare gun in the riverbed near the entrapment and shot the Spinosaurus with it. The flare did nothing of harm to its target but once it fell into the water it ignited the petroleum that had leaked out of the boat and into the river. Afraid of the fire surrounding it, the Spinosaurus fled the area as the crane collapsed around it, ending its involvement in the Isla Sorna Incident of 2001.
It is unknown what happened to this individual.
Skeleton on Main Street
A Spinosaurus skeleton reconstruction, more like the fossil record creature and less like the Isla Sorna clone, was mounted in Main Street of Jurassic World. The middle of it was smashed through by the Tyrannosaurus of Isla Nublar during the Isla Nublar Incident of 2015 (leaving the tail and everything else above the torso intact). It is also one of the dinosaurs included on the holoscape of the Innovation Center, though it is unknown if Spinosaurus was ever actually an attraction in Jurassic World.
By 2018, Spinosaurus were subject to cruelty, but it is unknown if there were any surviving populations.
- The image of the Spinosaurus seen in the first chapter of Jurassic Park Adventures: Flyers was reused from the Dinopedia of the Jurassic Park Institute website.
- A common fan theory for years was that the Spinosaurus was an early attempt at a hybrid dinosaur as a predecessor to the Indominus rex, however, episode 4 of Jurassic World: Camp Cretaceous season 3 confirmed that the Scorpios rex was in fact Dr. Wu's first attempt at hybridizing dinosaurs. The show's executive producer confirmed this in interviews with Jurassic Outpost and Syfy Wire, as well as canon consultant Jack Ewins on his YouTube channel.
Behind the scenes
As the story was being created for Jurassic Park III, the filmmakers wanted another dinosaur to replace Tyrannosaurus from the previous two films and they went through many candidates in their search for a replacement. Originally the smaller Baryonyx was supposed to be the main dinosaur antagonist of Jurassic Park III, but Paleontologist Jack Horner suggested Spinosaurus to the filmmakers as a candidate to replace T. rex and according to Joey Orosco a Spinosaur skull was discovered during the pre-production of the film, which inspired the filmmakers to use the larger Spinosaurus that was a relative of Baryonyx. Orosco described the finding as being similar to how the scientific description of Utahraptor was released during the making of the first film Jurassic Park, Before it was scrapped, a storyboard and a version of the logo for the film was made featuring Baryonyx. possibly skull material scientifically described in 1998 that was assigned to the dubious species Spinosaurus maroccanus. According to Ricardo Delgado, who served as a concept artist for Jurassic Park III in early 2000, several members of the Jurassic Park III art department still referred to the Spinosaurus as Baryonyx. Approxmentally 30 people worked on developing the Spinosaurus as a whole.
Concept art of the Spinosaurus was created by Mark "Crash" McCreery who had previously done conceptual artwork for the previous two films. What is said to be the final concept art created by McCreery had several differences from the design seen on screen. These include the front snout resembling Suchomimus rather than the actual Spinosaurus as well as a smaller and seeming singular crest and seems to have a taller sail. Though concept art is known to exist of a Spino with the upper front of the snout that looked like its real-life counterpart. Years after the film was released, McCreery considered the crocodile-headed dinosaur to be one of his favorite dinosaurs to design for the first three films due to its unique appearance and it being larger than Tyrannosaurus as well as how it was a challenge to make the animal look real rather than like a monster.
In designing the coloration of the Spinosaurus, Stan Winston Studio aimed for a "venomous flavor" that was seen in animals like the coral snake. Several designs of various color schemes of Spinosaurus were created by Ricardo Delgado, but the final color scheme of the dinosaur came from sketches by Mark "Crash" McCreery that Joey Orosco drew over using colored pencils. Orosco was responsible for devising the red in its color scheme that the Spinosaurus bears in the third film with the aim of giving it a bold look that was shared with the other dinosaurs designed for the film. With a design chosen, Orosco, John Rosengrant, Trevor Hensley, Rob Ramsdell, and Paul Mejias created a 1/5 scale maquette that was later scanned in a computer where it was then used to create the mold of the Spinosaur animatronic via rapid prototyping. Orosco also supervised the construction of the life-sized sculpture. For a reference for video games, advertising, and other merchandise for Jurassic Park III, a 1/16 scale maquette was also sculpted by Joey Orosco and Scott Stoddard with Mark Maitre painting the miniature.
The animatronic of the Spinosaurus was made to be faster, more durable, and more water-resistant than the previous Tyrannosaurus animatronics built for the previous films. This animatronic was designed like that of the adult Tyrannosaurus animatronics for the previous film The Lost World: Jurassic Park in that the Spinosaurus was not full-sized—the length of the Spinosaur being only to the base of its tail—and was mounted on a motorized cart that ran on tracks. The animatronic Spinosaur built for Jurassic Park III was very powerful, running on 1,000 horsepower, higher than the 200 horsepower that the T. rex animatronics possessed. The animatronic utilized state of the art "hot-rod" hydruallics with some of the hydraulic hoses of the animatronic even being NASA approved. The hydraulic hoses were estimated to be 2,200 ft (671 meters) long and it contained 42 hydraulic cylinders. Overall, nearly all of its mechanical systems were hydraulic. It also had more sturdiness than the Tyrannosaur animatronics due to the Spinosaur being constructed solid-state. To make the animatronic waterproof, a silicone-based product was used in waterproofing camping supplies was painted onto its foam rubber skin. In addition, the skin of the head was made of hard rubber, which was more durable and water-resistant than foam, and its eyes were controlled hydraulically as opposed to electronically. Because the Spinosaurus would be taking a lot of abuse during filming that could cause its teeth to potentially break, Stan Winston Studio made additional copies of the estimated seventy-six teeth in its palate. The robotic Spino was controlled by telemetry devices and eight puppeteers controlled its movements, each controlling portions of its body. These portions were the basic head/body, tongue slide levers, eye joystick control, the front arms, the cart/body, breathing potentiometer, the tail, and the body raise slider. On a minor note, the design of the eyes of the Spinosaurus of Jurassic Park III was based on that of a crocodile.
In conclusion, the Spinosaurus animatronic created for Jurassic Park III was the largest, heaviest, and fastest animatronic that Stan Winston Studio had ever made. It was so large that it was unable to get through the door of the studio. The only way that it could be transported was by removing a wall of their building to allow the door to open up to the ceiling so that it could pass through. The animatronic was then transported to Universal Studios Stage 12 via a flatbed truck. It was transported at night before 7 AM because the City of Los Angeles said that it could potentially block traffic and on a certain path due to the robotic dinosaur's size making it unable to go under bridges.
In addition to CGI and Spino's animatronic, a full-scale physical foot prop whose construction was overseen by John Rosengrant was also used during the plane attack scene. It was suspended by two poles that were operated by two Stan Winston Studio puppeteers and was used to step on a prop of the plane's fuselage designed by Michael Lantieri that was full-scale as well. Also, 250 gallons of oatmeal was used to portray the Spino dung.
In Ricardo F. Delgado's concept art for the plane attack scene after the plane's body falls to the ground, the pilot (or co-pilot) in the body of the destroyed plane makes a dash toward the plane's nose that is nearby to evade the advancing Spinosaurus, but the dinosaur notices the movement of the pilot and approaches the removed nose. In retaliation, the unlucky human desperately hides inside the plane part he/she has reached as the Spino begins rolling the plane's nose before using its head to push the plane part onto its tip. The sail-backed dinosaur then sticks its head inside the front of the plane where it finds the pilot and flings him/her up in the air where the human falls into the Spino's mouth. Furthermore, instead of the Spino losing the protagonists via getting its head stuck in between two trees, Delgado's concept art shows that the Spino was to be trapped in a group of fallen trees caused by a mudslide. During the filming of this scene, the Spino animatronic malfunctioned. When it was sticking its head inside the body of the plane, it instead began slamming into the plane "like a jackhammer" as director Joe Johnston described the malfunction.
Director Joe Johnston created the famous Spino vs T. rex as an homage to Ray Harryhausen's go motion dinosaurs and wanted to recreate a modern version of those fights. The fight with the T. rex was one of the last scenes to be filmed for JPIII. The film crew brought out both the animatronics of Spinosaurus and a refurbished Tyrannosaur Buck for the shooting of the battle. Due to how powerful the mechanical Spinosaur was, the Spino destroyed the Tyrannosaurus with one final blow that broke its neck which in turn caused its head to collapse, releasing hydraulic fluid that John Rosengrant described as being "almost like blood spewing". Over 20 seconds of footage of the fight, particularly of the animatronics, was cut from the film. Despite this, a shot of the animatronic fight where the Spinosaur slaps the Tyrannosaur was still present in the theatrical trailer.
The scene where the Spinosaurus attacks the boat of Dr. Grant and the Kirbys is taken from the Jurassic Park novel chapter "The Park" where the Tyrannosaurus known as Rexy attacks the raft of Dr. Grant and the Murphy children. This scene was originally planned for the first film before it was ultimately cut before production when David Koepp was writing the final version of the script. There were two scenes that were cut from this sequence. The first removed scene is a CGI shot of the Spinosaurus emerging out of the water during its attack on the group's boat, and the other is an alternate conclusion to the skirmish in which Dr. Grant uses the Velociraptor resonation chamber replica to summon the film's pack of Velociraptors which attack the Spinosaur and kill it, unlike in the final where Grant uses a flare gun found on the barge to scare away the Spinosaur.
Also, one of the alternate endings included a battle between Spinosaurus and the Marines. This alternate ending seems to have been reworked into the ending of the Jurassic Park III levels of LEGO Jurassic World where the Spinosaurus arrives at the beach with the Velociraptor pack of those levels just after the arrival of rescue team, though the soldiers do not fight the Spinosaur.
The roars of the Spinosaurus in Jurassic Park III were created by mixing the low guttural sounds of a lion and an alligator, a bear cub crying, and a lengthened cry of a large bird that gave the roars a raspy quality.
The ringing of the phone in the Spinosaurus stomach is likely an homage to the crocodile from Peter Pan, who had swallowed an alarm clock that went off every time it was near, thus alerting others to its presence.
Several designs of the logo for Jurassic Park III did not feature Spinosaurus, instead featuring Velociraptor (represented as Deinonychus), Pteranodon, a Lourinhanosaurus embryo, a human embryo (usually depicted as a skeleton), and finally series veteran Tyrannosaurus rex.
The reason for the Spinosaurus' absence from the list of the dinosaurs created by InGen and its overall existence on Isla Sorna is left unanswered in Jurassic Park III. One theory is that InGen scientists mistook the juveniles that lacked their famous sail seen in the adults for its relatives Baryonyx (which was planned to have its own paddock in Jurassic Park) and/or Suchomimus. This could hold true as the Suchomimus type specimen is a sub-adult and the holotype of Baryonyx is commonly believed not to have been fully grown. Furthermore and as stated above, the film's Spino's snout is similar in appearance to Suchomimus. Interestingly, Ricardo F. Delgado created concept art of an incubator for Spinosaurus that is never seen in the film. This could indicate that the mysterious existence of the film's Spinosaurus was to be explored further in an older draft of the script.
Spinosaurus is the first dinosaur in the films that can survive or at least win in a fight with a Tyrannosaurus rex, followed by the Giganotosaurus in Jurassic World: Dominion. Though the dinosaur hybrid Indominus rex could be deadly enough to kill a Tyrannosaurus as well because in Jurassic World the Indominus that was in the film was able to overpower the Tyrannosaurus rex of Isla Nublar before the Velociraptor Blue intervened.
Spinosaurus is a controversial dinosaur in the Jurassic Park franchise because of its portrayal in Jurassic Park III. Particularly when it was shown to be more powerful than the fan-favorite Tyrannosaurus rex. The destruction of the mounted Spinosaurus in Main Street from the Tyrannosaurus of Isla Nublar in the fight at the end of Jurassic World is a reference to the infamous fight.
If one listens closely and are good at hearing, the Spinosaurus uses some of the sounds of the Suchomimus from Warpath: Jurassic Park, and the Carnotaurus from Disney's Dinosaur, this is highly proven since sound designer, Christopher Boyes previously worked on Disney film a year ago.
In the 2005 Chinese edition of the Jurassic Park novel, Spinosaurus is featured on the cover despite never appearing in any form or mention in the book.
The design of Papo's Spinosaurus figure seems have been based on its Jurassic Park III depiction, most notably do it being double-crested.
One fan theory is that the Spinosaurus skeleton mounted in Main Street belongs to the Spinosaurus from Jurassic Park III. However, this theory unlikely because the Spinosaurus fossil has the nose comb that real Spinosaurus' had whereas the individual from Jurassic Park III did not have the same comb and the teeth of the mount is straighter than the one seen on Isla Sorna.
Notes and references
- Holtz, T. R., Brett-Surman, M., Walters, R. (2015). Jurassic World Dinosaur Field Guide. New York: Random House.
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CGy1stFSP1U&feature=youtu.be JP3 DVD
- Jurassic Park III
- Dinosaur Protection Group Article on the Gene Guard Act. Contains leaked InGen files.
- Spinosaurus is not seen on the Jurassic Park brochure.
- Comparison between the JPIII Spino and several restorations of the actual Spinosaurus. Note the size difference in the sail of both the movie Spinosaurus and scientific restorations of said creature.
- In an article by Stan Winston School, Rob Ramsdell recalled that the tooth count of the Spinosaurus animatronic was 76.
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CGy1stFSP1U&feature=youtu.be JP3 DVD
- https://i.imgur.com/reqoXjP.png Jurassic World storyboard
- Jurassic World
- The Making of Jurassic Park III
- Return to Jurassic Park: The Third Adventure
- Duncan, Jody. (September 29, 2012) Jurassic Park III's T-rex Killer: Spinosaurus. Stan Winston School of Character Arts.
- Beyond Jurassic Park: "The Art of Jurassic Park III"
- Taquet, Philippe, Russel, Dale A. 1998. New data on spinosaurid dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous of the Sahara. (PDF) Acd Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des Planètes/Earth & Planetary Sciences 327:347-553.
- Delgado, Ricardo. (November 13, 2012) Jurassic Park 3- Spinosaur attack. Blogspot.
- Fredricks. (Summer 2013) PT Interview: Ricardo Delgado. Prehistoric Times, 106, p. 50.
- Tyson, Jeff. How Animatronics Works. HowStuffWorks.com.
- Comparisan between the concept art of the Jurassic Park III Spino to the animatronic and the CGI model of Spinosaurus used in the film.
- Mark McCreery creating concept art of the Spinosaurus. Note that the snout of the Spino being drawn looks different than this concept art of said creature.
- (March 6, 2001. Archived August 21, 2001) Interview with JP3 Engineer. Dan's JP3 Page.
- Delgado, Ricardo. (November 13, 2012) Jurassic Perk 3- Spinosaur color study. Blogspot.
- Delgado, Ricardo. (November 20, 2012) Jurassic Park 3- Spinosaur color scheme 2. Blogspot.
- Delgado, Ricardo.(December 12, 2012) "...and I hate your dinosaur color schemes!". Blogspot.
- YouTube - JURASSIC PARK III - Building the Spinosaurus Part 1 - BEHIND-THE-SCENES
- charmskool.com - Jurassic Park III
- Deckel, Larry. (October 2001) Jurassic Park III: Bigger, Faster, Meaner. Cinefex, 87, p. 23.
- YouTube - JURASSIC PARK III - Building the Spinosaurus Part 2 - BEHIND-THE-SCENES
- Keck, William. (July 26, 2001) Poop Scoop. Entertainment Weekly.
- Delgado, Ricardo. (November 19, 2012) Jurassic Park 3- spinosaur lunch gag. Blogspot.
- Delgado, Ricardo. (December 3, 2012) Jurassic Park 3- Spinosaur attack/mudslide. Blogspot.
- Delgado, Ricardo. (November 15, 2012) Jurassic Park 3- Spinosaur fight ideas. Blogspot.
- (July 15, 2001) Johnston on the 'Shimmys'. Dan's JP3 Page, excerpted from Canoe.ca.
- Berry, Mark F. (January 1, 2005) The Dinosaur Filmography, p. 172. (Google Books) Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=KoeACgAAQBAJ&dq=joe+johnston+ray+harryhausen&source=gbs_navlinks_s
- Jody Duncan writes that the T. rex animatronic was simply one of the Tyrannosaurus built for The Lost World: Jurassic Park albeit refurbished. The identity of the TLW Tyrannosaur that was reused for Jurassic Park III is the Buck due to the presence of a scar on the side of its face, neck wattle, more prominent brows, and bearing dark yellow striping on its neck and upper back.
- Goldwasser, Dan. (July 9, 2001) Don Davis - Interview. Soundtrack.net.
- Youtube - Jurassic Park III (2001) Theatrical Trailer
- Shapiro, Marc (July 2001) New Dinos to Discover. Fangoria.
- The Making of Jurassic Park, p. 50
- Beyond Jurassic Park: "The Industrial Light & Magic Press Reel"
- Jurassic Park III film script: Scene 107
- Beyond Jurassic Park: "The Sounds of Jurassic Park III"
- Delgado, Ricardo. (November 26, 2012) Jurassic Park 3- Spinosaur incubator. Blogspot.
|Jurassic Park III Dinosaurs|
|Ankylosaurus • Brachiosaurus • Ceratosaurus • Compsognathus • Corythosaurus • Parasaurolophus • Pteranodon • Spinosaurus • Stegosaurus • Triceratops • Tyrannosaurus rex • Velociraptor|
|Playable Warpath Dinosaurs|
|Acrocanthosaurus • Albertosaurus • Ankylosaurus • Carcharodontosaurus • Cryolophosaurus • Giganotosaurus • Megaraptor • Pachycephalosaurus • Spinosaurus • Stygimoloch • Styracosaurus • Suchomimus • Triceratops • Tyrannosaurus rex|