Tupuxuara is a genus of large, crested, toothless pterodactyloid pterosaur. The genus was named and described by Alexander Kellner and Diógenes de Almeida Campos in 1988. The type species is Tupuxuara longicristatus. The genus name refers to a familiar spirit from the mythology of the Tupi. The specific name means "long-crested" in Latin.
The holotype, MN 6591-V, was found in the Cretaceous Santana Formation of Brazil. It consists of a snout and some partial wing bones. Mature individuals of T. longicristatus had a back-swept crest arising from the snout. Much more fossil material has later been found, showing considerable variation in morphology. Some researchers explain this as intra-specific variability, being caused by a difference in age or sex. Others, however, assume there are different species present.
It has been suggested that Tupuxuara was a fish eater at the coasts of South America. Other hypotheses include the possibility it was a fruit eater.
A subadult described by David Martill and Darren Naish from the University of Portsmouth in 2006 had not yet fully developed its crest, which supports the suggestion that the crest was a marker for sexual maturity.
Comparisons between the scleral rings of Tupuxuara and modern birds and reptiles suggest that it may have been diurnal.
see Tupuxuara/JW: TG
Tupuxuara is a tournament pterosaur in Jurassic World: The Game.